|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 46-51
Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in febrile patients attending the Regional Hospital of Buea, Southwest region, Cameroon
Fru Georgia Mbah-Mbole1, Kukwah Anthony Tufon2, Dilonga Henry Meriki3, George Enow-Orock4, Pius Mbah-Mbole5, Longdoh Anna Njunda6, Mbong Delphine Wam Iwoi7, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti8
1 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
2 Regional Hospital Buea; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
3 Regional Hospital Buea; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea; Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
4 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences; Regional Hospital Buea, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
5 Local Government Training Centre, CEFAM Buea, Southwest Region, Yaoundé, Cameroon
6 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
7 METABIOTA Cameroon, BP, Yaoundé, Cameroon
8 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences; Regional Hospital Buea; Department of Public Health and Hygiene; Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Yaoundé, Cameroon
|Date of Submission||14-Feb-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||14-Sep-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||02-Jan-2020|
Dr. Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Southwest Region
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) account for significant morbidity and mortality in Cameroon. Studies on malaria and HIV coinfection in the Southwest Region of the country are few. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection as well as the association between HIV and severe malaria (SM), in febrile patients attending the Regional Hospital of Buea. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 218 febrile patients were enrolled from the Outpatient Department/Emergency Unit of the Regional Hospital of Buea. Their vital signs were collected, and the consulting physician examined them. Their HIV and malaria statuses were determined by serology and Giemsa microscopy, respectively. SM was classified according to the WHO criteria. Results: The participants' age ranged between 2 weeks and 79 years, and the majority were females (59.2%). The prevalence of malaria, HIV, and coinfection with malaria and HIV were 30.7%, 6.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children 10 years and below (P = 0.018); meanwhile, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in participants between 31 and 40 years (P = 0.005). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower while the malaria parasite density was significantly higher in malaria and HIV-coinfected group. The rate of SM was 13.8%, and this was higher in children ≤10 years (P = 0.037). The association between HIV and SM was not statistically significant (P = 0.308). Conclusion: In general, a low prevalence of coinfection with malaria and HIV was observed, and HIV infection was not found to be associated with SM in this study. Further studies in other populations from Cameroon are required to shed more light.
Keywords: Buea, human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, severe malaria
|How to cite this article:|
Mbah-Mbole FG, Tufon KA, Meriki DH, Enow-Orock G, Mbah-Mbole P, Njunda LA, Wam Iwoi MD, Kwenti TE. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in febrile patients attending the Regional Hospital of Buea, Southwest region, Cameroon. Int J Adv Med Health Res 2019;6:46-51
|How to cite this URL:|
Mbah-Mbole FG, Tufon KA, Meriki DH, Enow-Orock G, Mbah-Mbole P, Njunda LA, Wam Iwoi MD, Kwenti TE. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in febrile patients attending the Regional Hospital of Buea, Southwest region, Cameroon. Int J Adv Med Health Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2021 Jan 18];6:46-51. Available from: https://www.ijamhrjournal.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/46/274625
| Introduction|| |
Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, two of the most deadly diseases of our time,, are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to their overlapping distribution, coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in the region. Studies that have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa so far show the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection ranging from 0.7% to 47.5%. Pregnant women and children are the groups most at risk of malaria and HIV coinfection. Malaria and HIV in coinfected patients have been shown to interact biologically, clinically, and immunologically, thereby worsening the prognosis of either disease. In coinfected patients, malaria leads to an increase in the HIV viral load and a decrease in the CD4 + T-cell count and increases the progression of HIV to AIDS. On the other hand, HIV is associated with an increase of malaria parasite density and leads to a more frequent and more severe malaria (SM).
In areas where malaria and HIV coexist, they both have an impact on the transmission of the other. In settings where malaria transmission is stable, HIV has been observed to increase the risk of malaria and clinical malaria in adults, especially in those with advanced immunosuppression. Meanwhile, in settings where malaria transmission is unstable, HIV-infected adults have an increased risk of SM and malaria-associated mortality, because adequate immunity against malaria is not readily acquired, thereby resulting in a higher proportion of malaria cases. On the other hand, malaria has been observed to be significantly associated with HIV infection in the Eastern but not in the Western part of sub-Saharan Africa.
Cameroon, like most countries in the sub-Saharan African region, is greatly affected by malaria and HIV. The national prevalence of malaria is estimated at 29%, and children are the most affected.,,,,Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite species causing malaria in Cameroon. The national prevalence of HIV currently stands at 3.7%, and young women are the most affected group. Although there has been a decline in the prevalence of HIV in Cameroon recently, the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) has been on the rise, increasing from 416,000 in 2000 to 560,000 in 2010, and with a projected increase of up to 726,000 by 2020., This, therefore, implies that there is an increasing number of PLHIV who are exposed to a number of infections including malaria. Coinfection with malaria and HIV is also common in the country; epidemiological studies conducted so far revealed the prevalence of coinfection ranging between 1.2% and 29.4%.,,,, However, no research has been conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection in the Southwest Region of Cameroon. Moreover, no research has been conducted in the country to determine whether malaria and HIV in coinfected persons are associated with increased severity of the other. This study was, therefore, designed to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection as well as the association between HIV and SM, in febrile patients enrolled at the Regional Hospital of Buea.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This study was conducted in the Regional Hospital of Buea, in Buea. The town is located in Fako division of the Southwest Region of Cameroon. The study area is described in detail elsewhere.
This was a cross-sectional study involving febrile patients enrolled from the Outpatient Department (OPD) of the Regional Hospital of Buea. The study was conducted between March and June 2018.
This study involved febrile patients, of both sexes, presenting with symptoms of malaria regardless of age. Participants who were not on any antimalarial drugs and who did not know their HIV status were enrolled. The blood pressure and temperature of the participants were collected, and they were examined by the consulting physician. Patients with positive results for malaria based on light microscopy were further categorized into the different types of SM as per the WHO criteria.,,
The current study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Health Science, University of Buea. Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants.
A time-limited sampling technique was used, where febrile patients were consecutively enrolled from the OPD of the Regional Hospital of Buea.
The sample size was estimated using the following formula for sample size:
Z = 1.96
P = prevalence of coinfection with malaria and HIV in Cameroon = 17.3%.
e = percentage of error to be allowed = 0.05
Thus, we enrolled 218 participants.
From every participant, about 3 ml of venous blood was collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-anticoagulated tubes following antiseptic techniques. The blood was used in the preparation of blood films (thick and thin) as well as screening for HIV.
Measurement of blood glucose level
Blood glucose level was measured with a glucometer (On Call® Plus Blood Glucose Meter, ACON Laboratories, Inc., USA) by a finger prick.
Determination of the hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count
Complete blood count (CBC) analysis was performed using the Mindray® Auto Hematology Analyzer (BC-2800, Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co., Ltd, Shenzhen, China). The hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and white blood cell (WBC) counts were deduced from the CBC results.
Detection of malaria parasites
Thick and thin blood films were prepared on grease-free glass slides, air-dried and stained with 20% Giemsa (1 in 20 dilutions) for 25–30 min. The films were read by two expert microscopists who were blinded from the results of the other. Where there was any discrepancy in the results obtained by the two microscopists, a third was brought in, and the results he gave were considered as final. Two hundred fields were screened for malaria parasite using the oil immersion objective, and where parasites were detected, the parasites were counted until 500 WBC is reached. The slides were declared negative only after counting to 2500 WBC. Malaria parasite density was estimated by dividing the parasites counted (in the thick film) by 500 WBC and then multiplied by the actual WBC count obtained from the CBC results of the participant to give numbers in parasite per microliter.
Screening for human immunodeficiency virus
HIV screening was performed in accordance with Cameroon's national algorithm for HIV screening by detecting anti-HIV antibodies. Briefly, a first rapid test was used, and if positive, a second rapid test was used to confirm the result. In this study, the first rapid and second rapid tests were Determine™ HIV (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) andFirst Response HIV-1-2 kits (Premier Medical Corporation Ltd., Kachigam, India) respectively. According to the manufacturer, the Determine™ HIV kit has a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile, theFirst Response HIV-1-2 kit has a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 82.86%, respectively.
Categorization of malaria into uncomplicated and severe forms
Malaria was categorized into uncomplicated and SM according to the WHO scheme as described elsewhere.,,,,,,,,,,,,
The data collected were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS version 16 (IBM, New York, USA) for Microsoft Windows. The statistical tests performed included the Pearson's Chi-square test for comparison of proportions and student's t-test and ANOVA for comparison of means. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
Characteristics of the study population
Two hundred and eighteen febrile patients took part in this study. Among them, 129 (59.2%) were female and 89 (40.8%) were male. The age of the participants ranged between 0 and 79 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 19.06 ± 16.96) [Table 1].
The mean (±SD) body temperature, Hb concentration, and blood glucose were 38.3°C (±0.71), 10.4 g/dl (3.2), and 78 mg/dl (±10.6), respectively.
Distribution of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus in the study population
Among the 218 participants, 72 were positive for malaria parasites, giving an overall prevalence of 33.03% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.8–39.7). P. falciparum was the only species identified in all positive malaria cases by light microscopy. Among the participants, 20 were diagnosed positive for HIV giving a prevalence of 10.1% (95% CI: 6.3–15.2).
Prevalence of malaria was highest in participants ≤10 years of age. The mean (±SD) age of the participants with and without malaria were 15.6 (±18.1) and 20.8 (±16.1), respectively. A significant association was observed between the prevalence of malaria and age group (χ2 =13.654, P = 0.018) [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Distribution of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus in the study population stratified according to age|
Click here to view
HIV prevalence was highest among participants between the age of 31–40 years (27.2%) [Figure 1]. The mean (±SD) ages of the participants with and without HIV were 29.7 (±14.1) and 18.0 (±16.9), respectively. The prevalence of HIV was also significantly associated with age group (χ2 =20.389, P = 0.005).
Malaria prevalence was 33.7% (30/89) and 32.6% (42/129) in males and females, respectively. The association between malaria prevalence and gender was not significant (χ2 =0.016, P = 0.899). Similarly, the prevalence of HIV was higher in males (12.4%, 11/89) compared to females (7.0%, 9/129). Like malaria, no significant association was observed between HIV prevalence and gender (χ2 =1.831, P = 0.176).
Distribution of severe malaria in the study population
The prevalence of SM in this study was 13.8% (30/218). The prevalence of SM was highest in children below 10 years (70%) [Table 2]. The mean (±SD) age of the participants with uncomplicated and SM were 19.2 (±14.3) and 13.3 (±15.2), respectively. A significant association was observed between the prevalence of SM and age group (χ2 = 11.872, P = 0.037). Furthermore, the rate of SM attack was higher in males (15.7%, 14/89) compared to females (12.4%, 16/129). However, no significant association was observed between the prevalence of SM and gender (χ2 = 0.491, P = 0.483).
|Table 2: Distribution of severe malaria with age in the study population|
Click here to view
Clinical features of severe malaria
The most frequent manifestation of SM was severe malarial anemia (60.0%), followed by cerebral malaria (30.0%), and hyperparasitemia (23.3%) [Table 3].
Coinfection with the malaria parasite and human immunodeficiency virus
Among the 72 patients who were positive for malaria in this study, 5 (6.9%) were found to be positive for both HIV and malaria [Figure 2]. Overall, the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.8–5.3). There was no significant association between malaria and HIV (χ2 =1.831, P = 0.423).
|Figure 2: Venn diagram displaying the prevalence of coinfection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus|
Click here to view
The mean (±SD) Hb concentration was 12.5 (±3.1), 10.2 (±3.4), 9.4 (±2.6), and 6.8 (±2.1) for malaria/HIV negative, HIV monoinfected, malaria monoinfected, and malaria and HIV coinfection, respectively. The difference in the Hb concentration between the groups was significant (P = 0.003).
The overall geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 18,456.6 parasites/μl. The GMPD (±SD) was 16,765.8 (±807.4) parasites/μl in malaria-monoinfected patients and 23,453.7 (±1634.5) parasites/μl in malaria and HIV coinfection. The difference in the GMPD between malaria monoinfected and malaria and HIV coinfection was significant (P < 0.0001). Correlation analysis revealed no significant association between malaria parasite density and age (r = −0.187, P = 0.117).
Association between human immunodeficiency virus and severe malaria
Among the 30 cases of SM, only 1 (3.3%) was coinfected with HIV [Table 4]. No significant association was observed between HIV and SM (P = 0.308).
|Table 4: Association of human immunodeficiency virus with severe malaria in the study population|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The current study revealed a high prevalence of malaria (33.03%), which is similar to the prevalence reported in other studies conducted in the area,, and elsewhere in the country. The high malaria prevalence observed in the current study could be attributed to the presence of environmental factors including the presence of bushes and stagnant water around residential areas, which favors the breeding of mosquitoes., The prevalence of malaria in the current study is also similar to the national prevalence of 29%. Malaria prevalence in this study was highest in children (≤10 years), which is in line with other studies conducted in the area., In this study, P. falciparum was the only parasite species identified by microscopy as causing malaria in the study population. P. falciparum has previously been reported as the main cause of clinical malaria in Cameroon. However, other species including Plasmodium vivax,Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale, have also been reported in the area. However, their occurrence is generally very low.
Very few studies reporting the prevalence of SM and its phenotypes have been conducted in Buea and Cameroon in general. This study revealed a SM attack rate of 13.8%, which is similar to the 10.9% earlier reported in the study area by Kwenti et al., but lower compared to the 29.3% reported elsewhere in Cameroon, and in other countries, including the 61.8% observed in a Ghanaian study. The discrepancy between the prevalence of SM reported in the current study and the others could be attributed to differences in the study design; this study targeted adults in addition to children; meanwhile, the other studies targeted only children. SM has been observed to be more frequent in younger children (<5 years) compared to older children (>5 years) or adults., This is also confirmed by the finding of a relatively higher rate of SM in children (≤10 years) in this study. The higher rate of SM in children could be attributed to their weak immunity against the malaria parasites. The susceptibility to malaria and SM attack generally decreases with increasing age as the number of exposure to the malaria parasites increases. Immunity to malaria in Cameroon has equally been shown to increase with age., In the current study, SM anemia, cerebral malaria, and hyperparasitemia were the most common features of SM in the current study which is also in conformity with earlier studies.,,,
This study revealed a prevalence of 10.1% for HIV in the target population, which is in conformity with an earlier study conducted in the area. However, it is higher compared to the national prevalence of 3.7%. One factor that may be responsible for the higher prevalence of HIV in this study could be the fact that this study was conducted on febrile patients as opposed to the general population of Buea. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher in participants between 31 and 40 years. HIV is generally known to be more common in adolescence and young adults, and this could be attributed to the heightened sexual activity of individuals in this age range. No difference was observed in the prevalence of HIV between males and females in this study.
The prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection observed in this study was quite low (2.3%), which corroborates other studies conducted in Cameroon., However, the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection was lower compared to the 7.3% reported in Yaoundé, and 29.4% reported in Douala. This discrepancy could be attributed to differences in geographical settings. The low prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection in this study could also be attributed to the differences in the age distribution of populations affected by both diseases. As earlier mentioned, malaria is more common in children and HIV in adults.
In the current study, malaria and HIV coinfection was observed to be significantly associated with low Hb concentration and higher malaria parasite density. This finding is suggestive that HIV worsens the prognosis of malaria in patients coinfected with malaria and HIV in the area. The findings of lower Hb and higher malaria parasite density in malaria and HIV coinfection are in line with the study by Nkuo-Akenji et al. and Njunda et al. However, this study revealed that there was no significant association between HIV and malaria or between HIV and SM. This study is the first to assess the association between HIV and SM in Cameroon, and the findings are in line with the study by Cuadros et al., which shows that HIV is not associated with malaria in western sub-Saharan Africa. The low prevalence of HIV, as well as the low prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection observed in this study, may have accounted for the absence of any significant association between HIV and SM. Furthermore, if there was a true association between HIV and SM, a hospital-based study might miss out the true association because of Berksonian and/or survivor bias. Larger studies involving other populations in Cameroon will be required to shed more light.
| Conclusion|| |
In this study, the prevalence of 33.03%, 10.1%, and 2.3% was observed for malaria, HIV, and coinfection with malaria and HIV, respectively. The malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children ≤10 years; meanwhile, HIV was significantly higher in the age group of 31–40 years. P. falciparum was the only parasite species identified as causing malaria in the target population. The prevalence of SM in this study was 13.8%, and it was higher in children ≤10 years. Significantly lower mean Hb concentration and higher parasite densities were observed in patients coinfected with malaria and HIV. There was no significant association between HIV and SM in the target population. Further studies will be required in other populations in Cameroon to shed more light.
We would like to thank the medical doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians of the Regional Hospital of Buea for their contribution toward the realization of this work.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Murillo D, Roudenko S, Tameru AM, Tatum S. A mathematical model of HIV and malaria co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa. J AIDS Clin Res 2012;3:173.
Kwenti TE. Malaria and HIV coinfection in sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, impact, and treatment strategies. Res Rep Trop Med 2018;9:123-36.
Berg A, Patel S, Aukrust P, David C, Gonca M, Berg ES, et al.
Increased severity and mortality in adults co-infected with malaria and HIV in Maputo, Mozambique: A prospective cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2014;9:e88257.
Cuadros DF, Branscum AJ, Crowley PH. HIV-malaria co-infection: Effects of malaria on the prevalence of HIV in East sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Epidemiol 2011;40:931-9.
Cuadros DF, Branscum AJ, García-Ramos G. No evidence of association between HIV-1 and malaria in populations with low HIV-1 prevalence. PLoS One 2011;6:e23458.
Mangham LJ, Cundill B, Achonduh OA, Ambebila JN, Lele AK, Metoh TN, et al.
Malaria prevalence and treatment of febrile patients at health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health 2012;17:330-42.
Tchinda VH, Ponka R, Ndzi ES, Madocgne AK, Amédée M, Tchinda MG, et al
. Prevalence of malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections and their association with undernutrition in schoolchildren residing in Mfou health district in Cameroon. J Public Health Epidemiol 2012;4:253-60.
Sumbele IU, Kimbi HK, Ndamukong-Nyanga JL, Nweboh M, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Lum E, et al.
Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the mount Cameroon area: Cross sectional survey. PLoS One 2015;10:e0123549.
Njunda AL, Fon SG, Assob JC, Nsagha DS, Kwenti TD, Kwenti ET. Malaria and intestinal parasitic coinfection and their contribution to anaemia in children in Cameroon. Infect Dis Poverty 2015;4:43.
Kwenti TE, Nkume FA, Tanjeko AT, Kwenti TD. The effect of intestinal parasitic infection on the clinical outcome of malaria in coinfected children in Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0004673.
Kwenti TE, Kwenti TD, Latz A, Njunda LA, Nkuo-Akenji T. Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: A cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon. BMC Infect Dis 2017;17:499.
Kwenti TE, Kwenti TD, Njunda LA, Latz A, Tufon KA, Nkuo-Akenji T. Identification of the Plasmodium
species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon. Trop Med Health 2017;45:14.
Kwenti TE, Nsagha DS, Kwenti BDT, Njunda, AL. Sexual risk behaviours among people living with HIV and implications for control in the Northwest region of Cameroon. World J AIDS 2014;4:198-205.
Njunda LA, Kamga HL, Nsagha DS, Assob JC, Kwenti TE. Low malaria prevalence in HIV-positive patients in Bamenda, Cameroon. J Microbiol Res 2012;2:56-9.
Nkuo-Akenji T, Tevoufouet EE, Nzang F, Ngufor N, Fon E. High prevalence of HIV and malaria co-infection in urban Douala, Cameroon. Afr J AIDS Res 2008;7:229-35.
Nkuo-Akenji T, Tevoufouet EE, Nzang F, Fon E, Ebong IN. HIV/AIDS and malaria in pregnant women from Cameroon. Afr J Health Sci 2011;18:105-9.
Njunda AL, Njumkeng C, Nsagha SD, Assob JC, Kwenti TE. The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon. BMC Public Health 2016;16:964.
Kwenti T, Edo E, Ayuk B, Kwenti T. Prevalence of coinfection with malaria and HIV among children in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A cross-sectional survey performed in three communities in Yaoundé. Yangtze Med 2017;1:178-88.
Kwenti TE, Njunda LA, Tsamul B, Nsagha SD, Assob NJ, Tufon KA, et al.
Comparative evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test, an antibody ELISA, and a pLDH ELISA in detecting asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in Buea, Cameroon. Infect Dis Poverty 2017;6:103.
Severe falciparum malaria. World health organization, communicable diseases cluster. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2000;94 Suppl 1:S1-90.
Njunda AL, Assob NJ, Nsagha SD, Kamga FH, Mokenyu MD, Kwenti ET. Comparison of capillary and venous blood using blood film microscopy in the detection of malaria parasites: A hospital based study. Sci J Microbiol 2013;2:89-94.
World Health Organization. Research Malaria Microscopy Standards Working Group. Microscopy for the Detection, Identification and Quantification of Malaria Parasites on Stained Thick and Thin Films. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. p. 25.
Kwenti ET, Njouom R, Njunda LA, Kamga HLF. Comparison of an immunochromatographic rapid strip test, ELISA and PCR in the diagnosis of hepatitis c in HIV patients in hospital settings in Cameroon. Clin Med Diagn 2011;1:21-7.
Boadu R, Darko G, Nortey P, Akweongo P, Sarfo B. Assessing the sensitivity and specificity of first response HIV-1-2 test kit with whole blood and serum samples: A cross-sectional study. AIDS Res Ther 2016;13:9.
Kimbi HK, Nana Y, Sumbele IN, AnchangKimbi JK, Lum E, Tonga C, et al
. Environmental factors and preventive methods against malaria parasite prevalence in rural Bomaka and urban Molyko, Southwest Cameroon. J Bacteriol Parasitol 2013;4:162.
Nyasa RB, Zofou D, Kimbi HK, Kum KM, Ngu RC, Titanji VP. The current status of malaria epidemiology in Bolifamba, atypical Cameroonian rainforest zone: An assessment of intervention strategies and seasonal variations. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1105.
Fokam EB, Dzi KT, Ngimuh L, Enyong P. The effect of long lasting insecticide bed net use on malaria prevalence in the tombel health district, South West region-Cameroon. Malar Res Treat 2016;2016:3216017.
Nkuo-Akenji T, Ntonifor NN, Ndukum MB, Abongwa EL, Nkwescheu A, Anong DN, et al.
Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence in rural Bolifamba, South West Cameroon. Afr J Health Sci 2006;13:40-6.
Fru-Cho J, Bumah VV, Safeukui I, Nkuo-Akenji T, Titanji VP, Haldar K, et al.
Molecular typing reveals substantial Plasmodium vivax
infection in asymptomatic adults in a rural area of Cameroon. Malar J 2014;13:170.
Oduro AR, Koram KA, Rogers W, Atuguba F, Ansah P, Anyorigiya T, et al.
Severe falciparum malaria in young children of the Kassena-Nankana district of Northern Ghana. Malar J 2007;6:96.
Achidi EA, Apinjoh TO, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Mugri RN, Ngwai AN, Yafi CN. Severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in Cameroon: Prospective study. Malar J 2012;11:215.
Nkuo-Akenji T, Deas JE, Leke RG, Ngu JL. Correlation between serum levels of antibodies to the 96-kD antigen of Plasmodium falciparum
and protective immunity in cameroon: A longitudinal study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993;49:566-73.
Kwenti TE, Moye AL, Wiylanyuy AB, Njunda LA, Nkuo-Akenji T. Variation in the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum
merozoite surface protein-1 and apical membrane antigen-1 in children residing in the different epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon. Malar J 2017;16:453.
Chiabi A, Takou V, Tchokoteu PF, Um SN, Essoh L, Immumboeh P. Initial treatment of severe malaria in children is inadequate – A study from a referral hospital in Cameroon. S Afr J Child Health 2009;3:9-11.
Shevell L, Meriki HD, Cho-Ngwa F, Fuller C. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus co-infection and risk factors for acquiring these infections in the fako division of Southwest Cameroon. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1066.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]