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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-15

The risk factors associated with complications of coronary angiogram: A cross-sectional observational study


1 College of Nursing, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, College of Nursing, JIPMER, Puducherry, India
3 Department of Cardiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. R Lakshmi
College of Nursing, JIPMER, Puducherry
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2350-0298.184677

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Background: Over the years, coronary angiogram (CAG) has evolved to become indispensable diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for coronary artery disease (CAD). The procedure even though minimally invasive with shorter length of hospital stay and low cost has some risk for morbidity and even mortality. Large extents of the risks are dependent on the clinical status of the patient at the time of the study and comorbid illness. Aims: The present study was planned to assess the complications and to identify the risk factors associated with complications among patients undergoing CAG for CAD. Methods: A cross-sectional observational design was used in 250 patients who underwent diagnostic or interventional procedure of CAG through either transradial or femoral route. The convenience sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Results: Majority (32.8%) of the patients were in the age group of 50-59 years, followed by 28.0% of the patients in the age group of 60-69 years. Male preponderance was noted (87.6%). About 6.8% of the participants had developed complications, among them 4.4% had hematoma, 1.2% had vasovagal reactions, and 1.2% had periprocedural myocardial infarction. History of current smoking was identified as risk factor for complications (P< 0.05). The risk of complications was higher in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients, (odds ratio 6.21 [1.96-19.68] at 95% confidence interval) and who had femoral access site (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Even as the improved patient outcome is seen with cardiac catheterization, it is not totally free from risk. Newer strategies such as radial approach have managed to reduce the risks considerably. History of smoking, femoral access, and PCI were identified as risk factor for complications following CAG.


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